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achel-water (noun), water (adj.)’ [Lith. H Akele., Phryg. akala ‘water’].
aiz-a goat’ [Armen. aic, Greek aix].
ala current, stream’ [Latv. H Alaja, Lith. ale.ti ‘flooded’].
alonhon 'a spear'
alta(s)current, stream’ [Illyrian RN
, Russ. (from Balt.) RN Al'ta].
an(a)at, on’ [Avest. ana ‘along’, Greek aná ‘at, along’, Goth. ana ‘at, towards’].
ang- curved, twisting’ [Old-Ind. ancati ‘a curve’, Greek ankos ‘valley, abyss’].
ant(i)against’ [Old-Ind. ánti ‘against, nearby, the Lith. ant ‘towards, against’, Toch. ánt ‘through’, Greek antí ‘against’, etc.].
apa, aphus water, river; a spring’ [Old-Pruss. ape ‘river’, apus ‘spring’, Old-Ind. ap- ‘water’].
apsaaspen’ [Altin apse ‘aspen’, Old-Pruss. abse, Pol. osa (from Proto-Slavic *apsá), Old-HighGerman aspa ‘aspen’].
argilos - 'a mouse'
armaswamp, bog’ [Lith. arma ‘bog, puddle’, armuo, -ens ‘the same’].
ars-to flow; current, river’ [Old-Pruss. RN Arsio, Arse, Old-Ind. árs,ati ‘to flow’, Hitt. arš- ‘the same’].
arta(s), arda(s)current. river’ [Old-Ind. árdati ‘to flow’, Greek ardó ‘to bedew’].
arzaswhite’ [IE *arg'- (white, clear)].
asa(s)stone’, as(a)mstony’ [Old-Ind. as’man ‘stone; heaven’, Avest. asman- ‘the same’, Pelasg. asáminthos (stone) bath’, Lith. akmuo, -ens ‘stone’].
asa  ‘colt’s foot (Tussilago farfara)’. That was its Bessian name according to Dioskurides. It is related to the Lit. dial. asys ‘horse-tail, Equisetum’, Latv. aši, ašas ‘horse-tail, sedge, rush’, which are probably related to the Latv. ašs, ass ‘sharp’, Old-Bulg. ostrý, Lit. aštrus ‘sharp’.
asn - 'I, me' , [IE *eg'hom, Lit. aš 'I, me'].
atat, towards’ [IE *ad-, Latin ad 'to, towards', Latv. ad ‘at, towards’, Old-Icel. at ‘at, opposite to’].
ath-high, steep coast, a hill’ [Greek akté ‘steep coast, peninsula, cape’].
at(u) current, stream’ [Latv. RN Adula, German Attel, Avest. adu- ‘current, stream, channel’].
balios 'white', [IE *bhel-].
bebrusbeaver’ [Lith. bebrus ‘beaver’, Old-Pruss. bébrus, Bulg. VN Bebrovo, Old-HighGerman bibar, etc.].
bend-to bind’, marriage [Old-Ind. bándhana- ‘binding’, Avest. bandayaiti ‘to bind’, Goth, Anglo-Saxon bindan, German binden ‘to bind’].
berasbrown, swarthy’ [Lith. be.ras ‘brown’, Latv. bers ‘the same’, Old-HighGerman bero ‘a bear’ (initially ‘brown’)].
berga(s)hill, bank’ [Old-Icel. berg ‘mountain’, Old-HighGerman berg, German Berg ‘mountain’, Old-Bulg. breg@, New-Bulg. brjag ‘bank, coast’].
berza(s)birch’ [IE *bherg'- 'a birch', Lith. bérz'as, Latv. berzs, Old-Pruss. berse, Russ. ber'oza, Bulg. breza ‘birch’].
bolinthos ‘wild bull, bison’. The word is attested in Aristotle, according to whom that animal lived in the Messapian mountain, which separated the country of the Peonians from that of the Maideans (a Thracian tribe inhabiting the middle course of Struma and upper course of Mesta), and that the Peonians called it mónapos. Therefore, bolinthos was a Maidean, that is, a Thracian word. It is compared to the German Bulle ‘bull’ and is derived from the IE *bhun-ent.
bonassos 'a bull' [IE *gwou-, Latin bos, bovis 'a bull'].
bor- 'mountain' [in Huper-boreoi 'those living behind the mountain'; IE *Hegwr- 'hill, mountain'].
bredaspasture-ground’ [Russ. bred, bredina ‘pasture’, bresti, bredu ‘to cross by a ford’, Balt. (Zhemait.) RN Bred-upja].
brentas (brendas) ‘deer’ [Messap. bréndon ‘deer’].
bria ‘town’ (Strab.; Steph. Byz. under the word of Messembria). Both authors state the word was Thracian. It is often found as a second component of Thracian settlement names, for example: Messembria, Poltymbria, Sélymbria, Skedabria, etc. The Thracian ‘bria’ is related to the Toch. A ri, B riye ‘town (a refuge on a hill)’ – from the IE *wrijá.
brilón - 'a barber', [Slavic *briti 'to shave', Old-Ind. bhrinati 'he hurts', Persian burridan 'to cut'].
brink- to swell’ [Lith. brinkti [brinkstu) ‘to swell’, Pol. na-brekac' ‘the same’].
briza ‘spelt, rye’ (Gal. de alim. facult. 1, 13/6 p. 514. Kühn). The author (Galen) saw this plant in Thracia and in Macedonia and concluded the word was Thracian. It is very probable. There are several etymologies for this word, that of A. Fick being the most acceptable one. A. Fick relates the Thracian briza to the Old-Ind. vrihi-h, Pers. birinj, Afg. vriz'e ‘rice’, Greek orinda=óryza ‘rice’, from which the Bulg. oriz. There is an alternative interpretation: the Thracian bryza is related to the Lith. brizdis ‘ling’, from the stem of the verb brigzti ‘to be torn, to get unraveled’.
bruzasquick’ [Lith. bruz'as ‘somebody who runs to and fro’, the Slavic *b@rz@, Bulg. br@z].
brynchós ‘guitar for the Thracians’ (Hesych.). The word is related to the Pol. brzek ‘a ringing, a tinkle’, Ukr. brjak ‘a ringing, a sound’.
brytos (masc.), bryton (neuter) ‘a kind of ale from barley, a beer’ (Archil. Hecat. and others), brutos (Hesych.), bryttion (Herodian.). The word was used by the Thracians, the Peonians and the Phrygians.
bur, buris (boris) ‘man’ [Alb. burrë ‘man’].
burt- (burd-)  ‘a ford’ [Slavic *brod@, Bulg. brod ‘a ford’].
búzasa goat’ [Avest. búza- ‘a goat’].
chalasmud’ [Old-Bulg. kal@, New-Bulg. kal ‘mud’, Czech kal ‘swamp; mud. soft soil’].
damasettlement, place for settling’ [Old-Ind. dháman- ‘place for dwelling’, Greek thaimós ‘house’].
daphasa flood’ [Lith. dapas ‘a flood’, Norw. dial. dave ‘puddle, pool’].
darsas (dersas) ‘brave, courageous’ [Old-Pruss. dyrsos (pl.) ‘able, brave’, Avest. daršyu- ‘brave, strong’].
datan (datas) ‘place, settlement’ [Alb. datë ‘place, settlement].
dava - 'a town'
dentu-clan, tribe’ [Latv. gens ‘clan, tribe’].
dero, dur 'a stockade', [IE *dhwer- 'a door, a gate'].
desa(s), disa(s)deity, god’ [IE  *deiwo-, Greek théos ‘a god’].
-didzos, -didza 'to create' [Russ. so-zdat 'to create', Lith. z'iedz'iu 'I form, I mould', Goth. deigan 'to puddle', Old-Ind. déhmi 'I plaster', Old-Pers. didá 'a fort', Greek teikhos 'a wall', Latin fingo, fictus 'I puddle', Oscan feihúss 'walls'].
dingafertile  ground’ [Latv. dinga ‘fertile place’,  Old-Icel. dyngia ‘dunghill’].
dizafortress’ [Avest. uz-daéza ‘a heaping, a fortification’, Old-Pers. didá, New-Pers. diz, déz ‘fortress’].
dónplace, country(side)’ [Old-Ir. dú, Gen. don ‘place, country(side)’, Greek chthón ‘soil, land’].
douro- 'strong' [Celt. *duro-].
drenisdeer’ [Alb. dre, dreni ‘deer’].
dul 'a house, a family'.
dumasdark’ [Lith. dúmas ‘dark, dark brown (for cattle)’, Latv. dúms ‘dark brown’].
dún-hill, mountain’ [Celtic *dunum 'a hill', Anglo-Saxon dún hill, mountain’, German Düne ‘dune’].
ebros 'a goat' [IE *kapro-, Gaulish gabro- 'a goat', Old Irish gabor 'a goat', Irish gabhar].
e(i)b-to flow, to drip’ [Pelasg. eibó ‘to drip, to flow (out)’].
ermasfierce, mad’ [Alb. jerm ‘furious, mad’].
esko 'to eat' [IE *ed- 'to eat'].
esvas (ezvas), esb ‘a horse’ [IE  *ekwo- 'a horse'].
gagila 'a jackdaw' [Slavic *gala 'a jackdaw'].
gaidrus bright, clear’ [Lith. gaidrus ‘bright, clear (cloudless)’, Greek phaidrós ‘shining, bright, cheerful’].
gava(s) county, countryside’ [Goth. gawi ‘county’, pre-Greek gaia, Att. gé ‘land, region’].
genton 'a piece of meat'.
germas warm, hot’ [IE *gherm-, Old-Ind. gharmá- ‘heat’, Armen. j^erm’warm’, Greek thermós ‘the same’].
gesa stork kingfisher’ [Old-Pruss. geeyse ‘kingfisher’, Latv. dzése ‘heron, kingfisher’].
gin- to languish, to spoil, to dry out’ [Old-Kurian Ginulle (a stream), Latv. g'nins ‘to spoil, to languish’].
haimos (-on), *saimas (-an) ridge, mountain chain’ [Old-Ind. simán- ‘ridge, boundary’, Irish sím ‘chain’].
heris 'a hand' [IE *khesro- 'a hand', Greek kheir 'a hand', Hittite keššar 'a hand'].
ida (ide) tree; forest’ [Old-Ir. fid, Gen. fedo ‘tree, trees, forest’].
iet(e)r (=jeter-) quick, agile’ [Old-HighGerman átar ‘quick’, Latv. atrs ‘quick’].
iltea 'a chosen woman'.
íl(u)- silt, mud’ [Greek ílys, -ýos ‘mud, silt’, Church Slavic il@ ‘the same’].
iúras (=júras) water, river’ [Lith. júra ‘a sea’, Old-Nord. úr ‘drizzle’].
kaba(s)bog, swamp’ [Engl. quab].
kalasdistrict, border region’ [Lith. galas ‘end, border of a field, meadow or forest’, Latv. gals ‘neighbourhood’].
kalsasdry, dried up’ [Latv. kálst (-stu, -tu) ‘to dry up, to wither’].
kamoles 'beloved'.
kapashill, slope’ [Latv. kapa, kape ‘long mountain strip, dune, slope’, Lith. kopa ‘and hill, dune’].
kel(l)aa spring’ [Old-HighGerman quella, German Quelle ‘a spring’].
kenthasa child, descendant’ [Latv. re-cens ‘fresh, young, new’, with another suffix in the New-Bulg chedo ‘a child’].
kersasblack’ [Lith. kéršas ‘on black and white spots’, Bulg. cheren ‘black’, Old-Ind. krsná ‘black, dark’].
ketri-, ketre-four’ [IE *kwetwores, Greek tetra ‘four’, Cymr. pedry- ‘four-fold’, Lith. keturi, Latv. c'etri, Bulg. c'etiri ‘four’].
kik-live, agile’ [Anglo-Saxon cwicu, Old-Nord. kvikr, kykr ‘live, agile’, Engl. quick].
kiri- [or kira] ‘mountain’, ‘forest’ [Old-Ind. girí-h ‘mountain’, Avest. gairi- ‘the same’, Lith. giria, gire ‘forest, wood’. Latv. dzira ‘forest’].
knisa(s)eroded place’ [Lith. knisti ‘to dig’].
kupselaa heap, a hillock’ [Lith. kupse.lis ‘heap, hillock’].
kurp-to burrow’ [Lith. kurpti (-i?) ‘to burrow’, Russ. korpat’ ‘to burrow’].
kurtagroove, wood’ [Old-Pruss. korto ‘groove’ from the Baltic *kurtá].
laza (-as) ‘clearing (in forest), glade’ [Serbo-Croat läz ‘clearing’, Russ. laz ‘animal pathway to a river (lake)’, lazina 'clearing’].
lingasdepression, meadow’ [Lith. lénge ‘low land’, PN Linge, Bulg. long@ ‘meadow’].
mandakes ‘a binder for sheaves’
marieus 'lime' [IE *mar- 'dirty, unclear'].
mar- water, river, bog’ ["European" *mar- 'sea', Gaulish mor- 'sea', Anglo-Saxon merisc ‘swamp’, Old-Icel. moerr ‘swampy country’].
marka bog; swampy country’ [Lith. mark? ‘a pit for steeping flax or hemp’, Ukrain. morokva ‘bog’].
melda(s) marshy reed’ [Lith. melda, méldas ‘marsh reed’, Latv. meldi ‘reed’, Old-HighGerman melta].
mér- large, great’ [IE *mér-, Church Slavic personal name Vladi-mer@, Old-HighGerman Volk-már, Hlodo-már, Old-Icel. már ‘big’].
a horseman’ [Alb. mes, mezi ‘stallion’, Roman. (substrat) mînz ‘stallion’].
midne '
a settlement'.
mukaseed, clan, posterity’ [Iran. muka- in the Osset. mug? ‘family’, muggag ‘seed, clan’].
mukas swampy country, a bog’ [Latv. muka ‘swamp, where one can sink’, mukls ‘swampy’, Lith. RN Múke.].
musasmoss, mould’ [Old-HighGerman, Anglo-Saxon mos ‘moss, swamp’, German Moss ‘moss’, Church-Slav. m@h@ ‘moss’, Lith. musai, pl. ‘mould on yoghourt’].
neos 'new' [IE *newo- 'new'].
nest-rumbling, roaring’ [Old-Ind. nádati ‘to rumlble, to roar’, nadi- ‘river, current’].
niva 'snow' [IE *sneigwh- 'snow'].
óstas river mouth’ [Lith. úostas, uosta ‘river mouth; a port’, Latv. uosts-, uosta ‘the same’, Latin óstium ‘river mouth’, Old-Bulg. uostije ‘the same’].
pa(i)vischild, son’ [Greek Homer pavis, Att. paus, pais].
paisa(s) soot’ [Lith. paišai ‘soot’].
palaswamp, bog’ [Lith. palios, pl. ‘big swamp. bog’, Latv. pal,as, pal,i ‘swampy banks of a lake’, Latin palus ‘lake’].
palmaswamp, bog’ [from pala with the suffix -má].
pan(i)swamp, quagmire, peat-bog’ [Old-Pruss. pannean ‘quagmire’, Goth. fani ‘silt’, etc.].
para, pharasettlement, village’, marketplace [from the IE *(s)porá as ‘village’].
paurakis 'small' [Latin paucus 'small'].
pauta(s)foam’ or ‘foaming’ [Old-Pruss. RN Pauta, Lith. puta ‘foam’, putóti ‘to foam’, Latv. putas ‘foam’].
perboy, son’ [Lat. puer ‘child, boy, son’].
per(u)-a rock’ [Hett. peruna- ‘a rock’, Old-Ind. párvata- ‘mountain’].
pés boy, child’ [Greek paus, pais ‘child’, Cypr. pas ‘the same’].
pi - 'beside, more'
pinon 'a drink' [IE *poi-, *pi- 'to drink', Latin pibo 'I drink', Slavic *piti 'to drink'].
pitye 'a treasure'
piza(s)bog, meadow’ [Latv. písa ‘deep swamp’, Greek písea, pl. ‘damp places, meadow’].
poltyn 'a fortress'
pras- (resp. *praus-) ‘to wash, to splash, to bedew’ [Lith. prausti ‘to wash, to sprinkle’, Latv. prauslat ’to splash, to besprinkle’, Old-Ind. prusnó'ti ‘to splash’].
puis, pus, pyschild, son’ [-pu(i)s = Greek Att. paus ‘child, son’].
pupabeans’ or ‘hill’ (?) [Lith. pupa ‘beans’ or Alb. pupë ‘hill’].
pura-maize, spelt’ [Greek pyrós ‘maize’, Lith. púrai ‘winter maize’, Church Slavic p@iro ‘spelt’].
purdaswampy, damp place’ [Latv. purdul,i ‘a snivel’, Greek pardakos ‘damp, wet’].
puris, poris, por, pyris, pyros, pyrson, boy’ [Latin pure ‘child, boy, son’ in Latin PN Marci-por, Nae-por, óli-por, Etr. nei-pur, naei-purs].
pus, pyschild, son’ - see puis.
pusinasspruce forest, pine forest’ [Lith. pušynas ‘spruce forest’ from pušis ‘pine, spruce’].
putrasbawler, squaller, babbler’ [Old-Latv. personal name Putre, Latv. putruôt, putrât ‘to cry, to speak fast’].
raimasmotley’ [Lith. ráimas ‘motley, particoloured’].
raka(s) ‘eroded place, a gully’ [Lith. rakti ‘to burrow’].
ramusquiet, calm’ [Lith. ramus ‘quiet’, Old-Ind. rámate ‘to stay quiet, to rest’].
raskusquick, agile, live’ [Old-HighGerman rasc ‘quick’, German rasch ‘the same’, Engl. rash].
rerastones, stony ground’ (from an earlier *lera) [Alb. lerë, -a ‘stones, fallen stones’].
rézas (resas) ‘king’ [Latin rex ‘king’, Old-Ind. raj- ‘the same’].
ring- (rink-) ‘quick, skillful’ [Old-HighGerman (ge)-ringi ‘light’, Middle-German ge-ringi ‘light. quick’, Greek rhimpha  ‘quickly, skillfully’].
romfea 'an arrow, a staff'
rudasred, reddish’ [Lith. RN Rud-upe., adj. rudas ‘(red-) brown, reddish’, Latv. ruds ‘reddish’].
rumba(s)edge; rapids’ [Lith. rumbas ‘periphery’, Latv. rumba ‘waterfall, rapids’].
rús-a (-as, -is) ‘a pit’ or rus-slowly flowing’ [Old-Pruss. PN Russe (a village and a swamp), Lith. rúsys (and rúsas) ‘potatoe’s pit; hut’, Latv. rúsa ‘pit; or the Litv. ruse.ti ‘to flow slowly’].
sabazias free’ [Old-Bulg. svobod' ‘free’].
saldas, saltas (instead of *zaldas) ‘golden’ [Old-Bulg. zlato (from the Proto-Slavic *zalta) ‘gold (noun)’ , New-Bulg. zlato ‘gold’, zlaten ‘golden’].
sara current, stream’ [Old-Ind. sará ‘river, stream’].
sartas light-red’ [Lith. sartas ‘light-red (for horses)’, Latv. sarts ‘red’].
satras (satrus) live, quick, agile’ (?) [Lith. šatrus ‘live, quick, agile, row’].
saut-is (-as) lazy’ [Latv. sautis ‘lazy man, who sleeps all the time’].
sei(e)tuva ‘deep place in the river’ [Lith. sietuve. ‘deep place in the river’].
seina(s) village, settlement’ [Armen. šén, Gen. sini ‘village’, Greek Rhod. kroina ‘residence’].
sékas grass, greenery; hay’ [Lith. še.kas ‘recently mowed down grass’, Old-Ind. s'áka- ‘vegetable’].
sem(e)la (= zeml’a) ‘land, earth’ [Old-Bulg. zemlja, Russ. zemlja, Lith. zeme, Latv. zeme].
serma, sermascurrent, stream’ [Old-Ind. sárma-h ‘current’, Lith. RN Sérmas].
siltaswarm, pleasant’ [Lith. šiltas ‘warm, pleasant’, Latv. silts ‘warm’, Cymr. clyd ‘warm, warming’].
sind(u)-river’ [Old-Ind. sindhu- ‘river’, Old-Pers. hindus ‘the same’].
singaslow land, depression’ [Goth. sigqan, Old-HighGerman sinkan, German sinken ‘to sink, to collapse’].
siros 'a granary'
skaivasleft’ [Greek skaiós ‘left’, Latin scaevus ‘the same’].
skalme 'a sword'
skalp-to beetle, to hit’ [Lith. skalbti (-biu, -biau) ‘to beetle, to dolly (for laundry)’].
skaplisaxe’ [Lith. skaplis ‘axe’].
skapt-to dig’ [Lith. skaptúoti ‘to cut, to carve (in wood)’, Greek skápto ‘to dig’].
skaras (-is) ‘quick’ [Old-Bulg. skor@, Russ. skor@j ‘quick’, etc. (Proto-Slavic *skar@)].
skarké 'a coin'
skarsastransverse, slanting’ [the Greek en-kársios, epi-kársis ‘curved, bent, transverse’, Lith. skersas ‘transverse, oblique].
skilasquick, impetuous’ [Lith. skilti ‘set fire’ and ‘run mad’]
skretacircle, circumference’ [Lith. skrete. ‘a (round) disk’, skrite. ‘circumference’].
skumbr-as (or -is) ‘hill, mountain’ [Lith. kumbrys, kumbris ‘hillock, hill, mountain peak, small mountain’].
spinda(s)clearing (in the forest)’ [Lith spindis ‘clearing in the forest’].
spinos 'coal'
stra (from an earlier *strava) ‘current, torrent’ [Lith. srava ‘current’, Latv. strava ‘current, torrent’].
strambasstubble-field’ [Old-Pruss. strambo ‘stubble-field’, the Latv. struobs ‘a spray, a stem, a straw’ ].
strumá, strumóncurrent, river’ [Old-HighGerman stroum, German Strom ‘current’ river’, Lith. sraumuo, -ens ‘fast current’, srúti (srúvu, dial. srúnu) ‘to fill with water’ and ‘to flow, to outflow the banks (for a river)’].
strúnacurrent, river’ [Lith. sriti ‘to fill with water, to outflow’].
stur(ia)country, countryside’ [Old-Bulg strana (Proto-Slavic *starná) ‘country’, Bulg. pro-stor ‘expanse, space’].
suchis, sukis, suku(s) (-os) ‘girl’, resp. ‘boy, juvenile’ [Cymr. hogen ‘girl’, hogyn ‘boy, lad’, Lith. súnus ‘son’, Old-Bulg. s@in ‘son’, etc.].
sukaa crack, a gorge, a pass’, [Lith. šuke. ‘a gap, a crack’].
sulagroove’ [Greek hýle ‘forest, groove’].
sunkasap, fluid’ [Lith. sunka ‘sap (of a tree); fluid’].
sura (zura) ‘current, stream’ [Old-Ind. sirá ‘current. stream’].
surasstrong, brave; a hero’ [Old-Ind. súra-h ‘a hero, a warrior’, Avest. súra- ‘brave, courageous; a hero’].
surassalty, bitter’ [Lith. súras ‘salty’, Latv. surs ‘salty, bitter, sour’].
svit- to shine, to twinkle’ [Lith. švite.ti ‘to shine, to twinkle’, Old-Bulg. svüteti sia) ‘to shine’].
tarpas, terpas a gap, a crack’ [Lith. tárpas, térpü ‘an interstice, a crack’, Proto-Slavic *tarp@ ‘a pit, a ditch’].
taru- spear’ [Greek dóry ‘tree’ and ‘spear’, Hett. taru- ‘tree, trees’, Old-Ind. dáru- ‘tree’].
therm  'a tribe'
thin- ‘to hold, to carry’ [Latin teneó, -ere ‘to hold’].
thurd- to crash, to collapse’ [Old-HighGerman sturzen, German stürzen ‘to overthrow, to fall’].
tirsas thicket’ [Lith. tirštis ‘density, thickness’ and ‘thicket, brush-wood’, tiršti (tirštu) ‘to thicken’].
titha light, radiance’ [Greek titó' ‘morning glow; morning, day’, Alb. ditë ‘day’].
tón  'a present' [IE *dó- 'to give'].
tranas rotting’ [Lith. RN Tranys, trene.ti ‘to rot, to decompose’].
traus-to break, to crumble’ [Lith. traušti ‘to break, to crumble’, traušus ‘brittle’, the Latv. trauss, trausls ‘brittle, fragile’, Old-Russ. troh@ ‘lazy; sad’].
tri 'three' [IE *treyes, *trí 'three'].
tund- 1. ‘to push, to knock’; 2. ‘river’ [1. Latin tundó, -ere ‘to push, to knock’, Old-Ind. tundaté ‘to push’. 2. Old-Icel. ?und ‘river’].
tuntasa flock, a flight; a heap’ [Lith. tuntas ‘a flock, a flight; a heap, a pile’].
turm-a run, a flight’ [Old-Ind. drámati ‘to run’, Greek drómos ‘a run’].
udra(s)otter’ [IE *wed-, *wod-, Old-Ind. udráh ‘water animal’, Avest. udra- ‘otter’, Greek hydros, Old-HighGerman ottar, Lith. údra, Bulg. vidra ‘otter’].
udrénaswater, aquatic’ [IE *wed-, *wod- 'water'].
úkasmist; misty, turbid’ [Lith. úkas ‘a mist; clouding; fume, vapour’, úkanas ‘cloudy, turbid’].
upariver’ [Lith. úpe. ‘river’, Latv. upe ‘river, stream’].
-upula 'apple?' [IE *amlu-, *samlu- 'apple'].
urda(s)stream’ [Lith. urdulys ‘(mountain) stream, pool’, Latv. urdavin,a ‘stream’].
usku-water; aquatic, marshy’ [Old-Ir. u(i)sce ‘water’, Old-Cymr uisc, Irish esc ‘water, bog, swamp’].
utos water, river’ [IE *wed-, *wod-, Old-Ind. ud-án- ‘water’, Greek hydos ‘the same’].
vair-as (-us) ‘spinning’ [Lith. vairus, vairas ‘spinning’, Swed. vírr ‘a spiral’].
varpasaswhirlpool’ [Latv. várpats ‘whirlpool’, the Lith. varpyti (-pau, -piau) ‘to dig, to burrow’].
veger- (resp. *veker-) ‘damp; to bedew’ or ‘haymowing’ [Dutch wak ‘damp’, Latv. vedzere etc.].
veleka(s)place for washing’ [Lith. vele.kles ‘a place, used for washing’, vele.ti ‘to wash (with a paddle)’].
ver- to spring, to issue’ [Lith. vírti (vérdu, viriau) ‘to boil, to bubble’, the Old-Bulg. v'reti v'rion ‘to spring, to boil’].
verza(s) a barrier used for fishing; dam’ [Latv. varza ‘dam’].
zalmos 'a skin'
zan 'a clan, a family' [IE *g'en- 'to give birth, a kin'].
zbel- (from an initial *zibel-) shining; a thunderbolt, a lightning’ [Latv. zibele ‘shining’, zibelęt ‘to flash, to twinkle, to shine’].
zburul- light (noun); shining’ [Lith. z'iburys ‘light’ (noun)’].
zeira 'a kind of chiton'.
zelas - 'wine'.
zelmisan offspring, descendant’ [Lith. z'elmuo, -ens ‘plant’ and ‘an offspring’].
zenis, zenésborn, born in’ [=genes in the Greek personal name of Dio=génes, from the IE *g'en- ‘to give birth’ in the Old-Latin geno ‘to produce, to give birth’].
zéri- (from an earlier *zvéri-) ‘an animal, a beast’ [Lith. z've.ris ‘a beast’, Old-Bulg. zver@ ‘the same’, Greek thér].
zetraia 'a pot'.
zi-god’ [shortened from ziu-, zia- and similar, IE *deiwo- 'sky god', Greek Zeus].
zilasgrey,  turned grey’ or ‘blue’ [Lith. z'ilas ‘grey-haired’, Latv. zils, zilš ‘blue’].
zilma(s) greenery’ [Latv. zelme ‘green grass or wheat’].
zombros 'a bison?' [Slavic *zo.brü, Latv. subrs 'a bison', Old Prus. wissambris 'a bison', Old Icel. visundr 'a bison'].
zum-, zuml- dragon’ [Old-Bulg zm'i ‘dragon’, zm'ia ‘snake’].
zvaka(s) bright, white’ [Lith. z'vake. ‘light (noun)’].

Personal names

The Thracian personal names are two-component and single-component. Some of the single-component names are in fact abbreviated two-component ones.

Bendidôra, [B]endidôros - ‘gift of Bendis (a deity)’.

Brinkazis, Brinkazeis, Brinkainos - ‘fat, stout, a boor’.

Bryzos - ‘quick; somebody who runs to and fro, aimlessly’.

Bizas, Byzis, Byzî - a frequent Thracian name - ‘a goat’.

Cerzula - ‘on black and white spots’.

Dentupes - ‘a boy, a son of the clan’.

Dentusucu, Dentusykos, Dentysykos - ‘a girl, a daughter of the clan’.

Deopus - ‘son of god’.

Deospor, Deospuris - ‘son of god’.

Desakenthos - ‘god’s child’.

Diaskenthos, Diascenthus, Diascinthus - ‘god’s child’.

Diazelmis - ‘god’s descendant’.

Diazenis, Diuzenes ‘born of Zeus, divine’.

Dizapés - ‘god’s son’.

Dizapor - ‘god’s son, boy’.

Dizazelmis - ‘god’s child, descendant’.

Drenis - from the IE *dhren- ‘a deer’.

Eptaikenthos, Eptakenthos, Eptekenthos, Eptękenthos, Eptacentus, Eptacens, Iptacens, Eptecens, Eptecentus, Eftacentus, Eftecenthus - a frequent Thracian name ‘Epta’s (a goddess) child’.

Eptaper - ‘Epta’s son’.

Eptaporis, Heptaporis, Epteporis, Eptiporis - ‘Epta’s son’.

Eptarys, Eptepus - ‘Epta’s child’.

Eptepyris, Eptepyris = Eptaporis.

Eptesuchis, Eptesykos, Eptesykos -‘Epta’s girl (resp. boy’.

Eptenis, Eptenes - extended with the suffix -en from Epta-, Epte- in a composite Thracian names, such as Epta-kenthos, Epta-per, Epte-pyris, etc.

Eptezenis, Epteizenis, Eptezenus - ‘born of Epta’.

Ezbenis, Esbenus, Hesbenus, Hezbenus, Esbeneios - a derivative with the suffix -en- of the Thracian word for horse *esva-s or *ezva-s.

Gaidres - ‘shining, bright’.

Kerses, Kersos, Kerza - from the Thracian adjective kerasa ‘black’, also in Thracian personal names Kerse-bleptes, Kerso-bleptes (an Odrisian king, 359-341 BC) and Kersi-baulos (a Thracian king).

Ketriporis, Cet(ri)p(oris); variants: Kedripolis, Kedreipolis, Kedropolis, Kedr polis - ‘fourth child’.

Mokasokos - ‘girl (daughter) of the clan’.

Mukaboris, Mukabur, Mukaburis - ‘man (son) of the clan’. The Thracian word muka-s ‘clan, generation’ is also present in a number of two-component names: Muka-kakaes, Muka-tralis, Muka-zeras, Muka-kenthos, Muka-poris, Muka-zenis. The elimination of the second component led to other Thracian names: Mukas, Mukos, Muka (Muca), Mokas, Moca, Mokkas, Mokkos, Mokkus. Also Mukazeis, Mukases, Mucasis, Mukasos, Mukala(s), Muccala, Mucalus.

Mukakenthos, Mucacentus - ‘child, descendant of the clan’.

Mukapaibes, Mucapaibes - ‘child, son of the clan’.

Mukaporis, Mokaporis, Mukaporeis, Mucapor, Mocapor, Mokkaporis, Mokaporos, Mucapora - a frequent Thracian name meaning ‘boy, son of the clan’.

Mukapuis, Mucapus - ‘child, son of the clan’.

Mukazenis, Mukasenes, Mucasenes. From Muka- ‘family, clan’ and -zenis ‘born, born in, native of’.

Pytros - ‘bawler, squaller, babbler’.

Rhaskos - ‘quick, brisk’.

Rhaskuporis, Rhaskyporis, Rheskuporis, Rhaskupolis, Rascupolis, R(h)escupolis - names of three Thracian kings, and also of Bosporan kings. = ‘quick, brisk boy’.

Rheskutorme, Rescuturme. (-turme. -torme =  ‘to run’) ‘running fast’.

Rhesos, Rhesus - a famous Thracian king; Rheesos, Rhesus, Resus - ‘king’.

Satres - see later among the tribal names.

Sautes - ‘“lazy-bones”, “drowsy-head”’.

Skaris - ‘quick’.

Skílas - from the Lith. skílti ‘to set fire’, figurative ‘to run fast, to ride’.

Sura- (Suratralis) - ‘strong, brave’.

Taruthin, Tarusinas, Tarutinos - ‘holding a spear, lancer’.

Ziles - from the Lith. zílas ‘grey-haired’, the Latv. zils, zils, ‘blue’.

Zipaibes, Zipaibes - ‘god’s child, son’.

Ziper - ‘god’s son’.

Zipyrôn, Zeipyrôn - ‘god’s boy, son’.

Zipyros, Zeipyros, Ziepyrus, Zypyr - god’s boy, son’.




Letter / Digraph



Further comment


as in father, but shorter. Like fathom


never as in cat


as in father




(in Sindarin) as in father, but even longer




(in Sindarin) the vowels described for a and e in one syllable.


Similar to ai


a diphthong, similar to that in eye, but with short vowels


never as in rain


a and u run together in one syllable. Similar to the sound in house


never as in sauce


(in Sindarin) a common way to write au at the end of the word




as in pet




the same vowel lengthened (and in Quenya more closed; as in German)

S: [ɛː], Q: [eː]

Rural Hobbit pronunciation allows the sound as in English rain


(in Sindarin) the vowel of pet especially lengthened


Rural Hobbit pronunciation allows the sound as in English rain


as in eight


never as in either (in neither pronunciation)


(in Quenya) e and u run together in one syllable


never as in English or German


as in machine, but short


not opened as in fit


as in machine




(in Sindarin) as in machine, but especially lengthened




(in Quenya) i and u run together in one syllable


later by men often as in English you


open as in British got




the same vowel lengthened (and in Quenya more closed; as in German)

S: [ɔː], Q: [oː]

Rural Hobbit pronunciation allows the sound of "long" English cold


(in Sindarin) the same vowel especially lengthened


Rural Hobbit pronunciation allows the sound of "long" English cold


(in Quenya) as in English coin




(in Sindarin) the vowels described for o and e in one syllable.


Similar to oi. Cf. œ!


(in Sindarin) as in German Götter


in published writing often oe has falsely been used, as in Nírnaeth Arnoediad!


as in cool, but shorter


not opened as in book


as in cool




(in Sindarin) the same vowel as above, but especially lengthened




(in Sindarin) as in French lune or German süß, but short


not found in English


(in Sindarin) as in French lune or German süß




(in Sindarin) as in French lune or German süß, but even longer


not found in English

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